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16th-century businesswomen
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  3. Gracia Nasi (1510?-1569)
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  5. The Long Journey of Gracia Mendes

Portuguese Armada retreat after monsoon conditions and a counterattack by the forces of Yusuf Adil Shah. Year MDX was a common year starting on Tuesday link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Events Sunflowers are introduced in Europe. January—June January — Catherine of Aragon gives birth to her first child, a stillborn daughter.

May 12 — The Prince of Anhua rebellion begins when Zhu Zhifan, Prince of Anhua, kills all the officials invited to a banquet, and declares his intent on ousting the powerful Ming dynasty eunuch Liu Jin, during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor in China. This is a chronology of the colonization of the Land of Israel, recording the founding dates of Jewish settlements. Until the period of the First Aliyah In , Tiberias was reestablished. At the start of the 19th century, a group of students of the Vilna Gaon immigrated to the land of Israel and renewed the Jewish settlement in Safed and surrounding area, and reinforced the Jewish settlement in Jerusalem and Hebron.

In Jewish neighborhoods were first established outside of the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. In , the first Jewish agricultural school, Mikveh Israel was established. In addition to Jewish immigrants, others immigrated to land of Israel as well. In , with the conclusion of the construction of the Suez Canal, many of the Egyptian workers could not to return to their homes in Egypt, which had been occupied by their brothers during their absence, and many.

Each share costs ten shillings, and proceeds are used to repair harbours, and for other public works. A substantial proportion of the Huguenot army manages to escape, under Gaspard de Coligny. June 10 — German Protestant troops reinforce Coligny, near Limoges. Throughout his year reign, his fame as the greatest warrior and ruler of his age spreads both to the East and West. Sarah Aroeste is a Manhattan-based[1] Judaeo-Spanish musician. In , her family built a synagogue in Thessaloniki, which today remains one of the only synagogues there.

She was disappointed that, while there was a revival of Ashkenazi klez. Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. Ancona is one of the main ports on the Adriatic Sea, especially for passenger traffic, and is the main economic and demographic centre of the region.

History Borders and castles of the Republic of Ancona in the 15th century. The Vanvitelli's Lazzaretto. The portal of the church of San Francesco.

The Long Journey of Gracia Mendes - AbeBooks - Marianne Birnbaum:

Marranos: Secret Seder in Spain during the times of inquisition, an painting by Moshe Maimon Marranos were Spanish and Portuguese Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages, yet continued to practice Judaism in secret. The term specifically refers to the charge of crypto-Judaism, whereas the term converso was used for the wider population of Jewish converts to Catholicism, whether or not they secretly still practised Jewish rites.

Converts from either Judaism or Islam were referred to by the broader term of "New Christians". The term "marrano" came into later use in with the Castilian Alhambra Decree, ordered by Inquisitor Torquemada, himself from a Converso family. Espina, confessor of Queen Isabel, had been a rabbi. It prohibited the practice of Judaism in Spain and required all remaining Jews to convert or leave, under the premise that, "If they are not good Christians, their descendants will be".

By then, the great maj. Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in and from Portugal in Although the and expulsions of unconverted Jews from Spain and Portugal were separate events from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions which was established over a decade earlier in , they were ultimately linked, as the Inquisition eventually also led to the fleeing out of Iberia of many descendants of Jewish converts to Catholicism in subsequent generations.

Despite the fact that the original Edicts of Expulsion did not apply to Jewish-origin New Christian conversos —as these were now legally Christians— the discriminatory practices that the Inquisition nevertheless placed upon them, which were often lethal, put immense pressure on many of the Jewish-origin Christians to. There have been Jewish communities in Anatolia since at least the fifth century BCE and many Spanish and Portuguese Jews expelled from Spain by the Alhambra Decree were welcomed into the Ottoman Empire in the late 15th century, including regions now part of Turkey, centuries later, forming the bulk of the Ottoman Jews.

Today, the vast majority of Turkish Jews live in Israel, while modern-day Turkey continues to host a modest Jewish population. History Roman and Byzantine rule Sardis Synagogue was a section of a large bath-gymnasium complex, that was in use for about — years.

The history of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel is about the history and religion of the Jewish people who originated in the Land of Israel, and have maintained physical, cultural, and religious ties to it ever since. Although they had first emerged centuries earlier as an outgrowth of southern Canaanites,[1][2][3][4] and the Hebrew Bible claims that a United Israelite monarchy existed starting in the 10th century BCE, the first appearance of the name "Israel" in the non-Biblical historic record is the Egyptian Merneptah Stele, circa BCE.

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During the biblical period, two kingdoms occupied the highland zone, the Kingdom of Israel Samaria in the north, and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. The Land of Israel, also known as the Holy Land or Palestine, is the birthplace of the Jewish people, the place where the final form of the Hebrew Bible is thought to have been compiled, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity.

The region has come under the sway of various empires and, as a result, has hosted a wide variety of ethnicities. It gradually became predominantly Muslim after the end of the Crusader period , during which it was the focal poin. The following is a list of women in leadership by nationality — notable women who are well known for their achievements in leadership.

This is a list of notable people from Antwerp, who were either born in Antwerp, or spent part of their life there. The history of the Jews in Ancona in Italy, began when Jews settled into the city in the first half of the 14th century, contributing to money-lending and other economic roles. The Jewish community of Ancona is one of the oldest and most significant Jewish communities in Italy. The presence of Jews is first recorded in the 10th century. In the following centuries the community grew because of the importance of the port and commercial links with the Levant.

The Old Yishuv developed after a period of severe decline in Jewish communities of the Southern Levant during the early Middle Ages, and was composed of three clusters. The oldest group consisted of the Ladino-speaking Sephardic Jewish communities in Galilee and the Judeo-Arabic speaking Musta'arabim who settled in Eretz Yisrael in the late Mamluk and e. He wrote extensively about his travels and experiences in these places, which he penned in a Hebrew rhymed prose narrative, and eventually publis.

Inquisition and the Jews. Birnbaum, Marianna D. The long journey of Gracia Mendes [Online-Ausg. Budapest: Central European University Press. Solomon H. The Jewish Quarterly Review 88, , , p. The Jewish Quarterly Review 88, , , pp.

Gracia Nasi (1510?-1569)

Five years later, in , they were forcibly converted to Cathol Folders related to Gracia Mendes Nasi: Jews in Ottoman Palestine Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 16th-century businesswomen Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Portuguese women in business Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Benveniste topic Benveniste, is the surname, byname see below - the origin of the name of an old, noble, rich, and scholarly Jewish family of Narbonne, France and northern Spain from the 11th century.

In the 14th to the 15th century they held the titles of "Benveniste de la Cavalleria"—"of the knights" Folders related to Benveniste: Davidic line Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Jewish royalty Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Jewish families Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Chronology of Aliyah in modern times topic This is a chronology of the colonization of the Land of Israel, recording the founding dates of Jewish settlements.

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In , with the conclusion of the construction of the Suez Canal, many of the Egyptian workers could not to return to their homes in Egypt, which had been occupied by their brothers during their absence, and many Folders related to Chronology of Aliyah in modern times: History of Palestine region Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Populated places in Israel Revolvy Brain revolvybrain History of Zionism Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

She was disappointed that, while there was a revival of Ashkenazi klez Folders related to Sarah Aroeste: Judaeo-Spanish-language singers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Ladino-language singers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Jewish American musicians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Marrano topic Marranos: Secret Seder in Spain during the times of inquisition, an painting by Moshe Maimon Marranos were Spanish and Portuguese Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages, yet continued to practice Judaism in secret.

Spanish and Portuguese Jews topic Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in and from Portugal in Despite the fact that the original Edicts of Expulsion did not apply to Jewish-origin New Christian conversos —as these were now legally Christians— the discriminatory practices that the Inquisition nevertheless placed upon them, which were often lethal, put immense pressure on many of the Jewish-origin Christians to Folders related to Spanish and Portuguese Jews: Spanish Jews Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Portuguese Jews Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Spanish and Portuguese Jews Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

History of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel topic The history of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel is about the history and religion of the Jewish people who originated in the Land of Israel, and have maintained physical, cultural, and religious ties to it ever since.

History of Israel topic The Land of Israel, also known as the Holy Land or Palestine, is the birthplace of the Jewish people, the place where the final form of the Hebrew Bible is thought to have been compiled, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity. List of women in leadership topic The following is a list of women in leadership by nationality — notable women who are well known for their achievements in leadership.

List of people from Antwerp topic This is a list of notable people from Antwerp, who were either born in Antwerp, or spent part of their life there.


  1. The Anastasi System - Psychic Development Level 2: Energy and Auras (The Anastasi System of Psychic Development)?
  2. Learning to Photograph, Volume 2: Visual Concepts and Composition.
  3. Catalog Record: The long journey of Gracia Mendes | HathiTrust Digital Library.
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History of the Jews in Ancona topic The history of the Jews in Ancona in Italy, began when Jews settled into the city in the first half of the 14th century, contributing to money-lending and other economic roles. He wrote extensively about his travels and experiences in these places, which he penned in a Hebrew rhymed prose narrative, and eventually publis Folders related to Zechariah Dhahiri: Rabbis in Ottoman Syria Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 16th-century Jews Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Hebrew-language writers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Revolvy Site Map. Francisco Mendes and his brother, Diogo, were the directors of a powerful trading company and bank of world renown, with agents across Europe and around the Mediterranean.

invest.old.nordstreet.com/the-final-port.php Following the beginning of the Age of Discovery and the finding, by the Portuguese, of a sea route to India , the Mendes brothers became particularly important spice traders. They also traded in silver — the silver was needed to pay the Asians for those spices. In January of , when Beatrice was only twenty-seven years old, Francisco died.

In his will Francisco divided his fortune between Beatrice and his brother and business partner, Diogo; this bold decision put Beatrice on the path to becoming the successful and renowned business woman of the sixteenth century that we know her for today. A few years before Francisco's death in , his brother, Diogo, had opened a branch office of their banking house in the Habsburg Netherlands city of Antwerp together with his relative Abraham Vienveniste.

The move from Lisbon was also timely due to the changing political landscape in Portugal, when as of May 23, , the Pope ordered the establishment of a Portuguese Inquisition. Once they settled in Antwerp, Beatrice invested her family fortune in her brother-in-law's business, and started to make a name for herself not only as his business partner but as an independent business woman herself. The relationship between the de Luna and Mendes households became even stronger, with the marriage between Beatrice's sister, Brianda, and Diogo Mendes. But just five years after Beatrice Mendes settled in Antwerp , Diogo also died.

It was now , and in his will he left his niece and sister-in-law control of the Mendes commercial empire, making Beatrice Mendes an important businesswoman. The enormous wealth enabled her to influence kings and popes , which she did to protect her fellow Conversos. It also enabled her to finance her escape network. It is believed she was the driving force behind the publication of the Ferrara Bible from Sephardic source texts The second, public printing of the book was dedicated to her.

All the while she had to fend off attempts by various monarchs to confiscate her fortune by trying to arrange a marriage of her only daughter to their relatives. Had this happened, a large portion of the family wealth would have been lost, as it would have come under the control of her daughter's husband. Beatrice Mendes resisted all these attempts, which often put her in personal peril. Starting in Antwerp, she began to develop an escape network that helped hundreds of fellow Conversos flee Spain and Portugal , where they had been constantly under threat of arrest as heretics by the Inquisition.

In Antwerp , Beatrice Mendes and her staff gave them instructions and the money to travel by cart and foot over the Alps to the great port city of Venice , where arrangements were made to transport them by ship to the Ottoman Empire Greece and Turkey in the East. The escape route was carefully planned. Even so, many died on the way as they traversed the mountain paths of the high Alps. These dealings involved commercial activities, loans, and bribes. Earlier payments to the Pope by the House of Mendes and their associates had delayed the establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal see History of the Jews in Portugal.

In , she fled once again, this time to the Republic of Venice , and took up residence on the Grand Canal. The city-state offered Jews and conversos a safe base to live and conduct business, although most practicing Jews were confined in crowded ghettos; because of this situation that Jewish people were put into, the Mendes most likely practiced Judaism secretly while still putting up the Catholic charade.

She continued the type of business that she did with her brother-in-law, and very successfully traded pepper, grain, and textiles. While in Venice, she had a dispute with her sister, Brianda, Diogo's wife, regarding his estate, and left yet again to the nearby city state of Ferrara to avoid the ruling the Venetian Giudici al Forestier Tribunal for the Affairs of Foreigners decided would end the sisters' conflict over equal control of the fortune.

The city of Ferrara was eager accept the Mendes family; Ercole II, Duke of Este , agreed to the terms of Diogo Mendes's will so that the wealthy family would move to his city, and received them gracefully in In Ferrara, Beatrice Mendes, for the first time in her life, was able to openly practice Judaism with in a distinguished Jewish Sephardi Community and in a city that recognized her rights. The genealogy of her family starts to get a little confusing here; this is most likely when her sister Brianda adopted the name Reyna, when Beatrice's daughter Ana, became known as Reyna as well, and also when Brianda's daughter, named after Beatrice, was given the name Gracia.

After the settlement was made, her, her daughter Ana now Reyna Nasi , and a large entourage moved to Constantinople now Istanbul , in the Ottoman domains, where she arranged for her daughter to marry her husband's nephew and business partner, Don Joseph Nasi.

The Long Journey of Gracia Mendes

This move in , just as her others, proved to be just in time as the political atmosphere in Counter-Reformation Italy started to become hostile. She was very dedicated to her Jewish lifestyle, and assumed a role of leadership in the Sephardi world of the Ottoman Empire. In Istanbul, she built synagogues and yeshivas. These institutions were created primarily to help the refugees to return to Judaism, their ancestral faith. In , she was granted a long-term lease on the Tiberias region in Galilee part of Ottoman Syria at the time , from Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent , in exchange for guaranteeing a substantial increase in the yearly tax revenues.

The Ottoman Empire , under the Sultan, had conquered that part of the Holy Land some years earlier, but it was largely a desolate place. As a result, she obtained the ruling authority over the Tiberias area.