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Rotations may be done using Factor or components transformations to a target matrix include the standard Promax transformation Promax , a transformation to a cluster target, or to any simple target matrix target. Reliability coefficients alpha scoreItems , score. Multilevel analyses may be done by statsBy and multilevel. The scoreItems , and score. Additional functions make for more convenient descriptions of item characteristics include 1 and 2 parameter Item Response measures.
The tetrachoric , polychoric and irt. These functions include extracting clusters from factor loading matrices factor2cluster , synthetically forming clusters from correlation matrices cluster. Functions to generate simulated data with particular structures include sim. The functions sim. A more general form for all of these is sim. Functions to apply various standard statistical tests include p.
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Mediation and moderation analyses are done using mediate from either raw data or from a correlation matrix. In order to study diurnal or circadian variations in mood, it is helpful to use circular statistics. Functions to find the circular mean circadian. A dynamic model of personality and motivation the Cues-Tendency-Actions model is include as cta. A number of useful helper functions allow for data input read. The most recent development version of the package is always available for download as a source file from the repository at the PMC lab:.
Three vignettes overview. The more important functions in the package are for the analysis of multivariate data, with an emphasis upon those functions useful in scale construction of item composites. However, there are a number of very useful functions for basic data manipulation including read.
When given a set of items from a personality inventory, one goal is to combine these into higher level item composites. This leads to several questions:. After finding either standard Pearson correlations, or finding tetrachoric or polychoric correlations, the dimensionality of the correlation matrix may be examined. Unfortunately, there is no agreed upon answer. The Very Simple Structure VSS set of procedures has been proposed as on answer to the question of the optimal number of factors. Other procedures VSS. Although this may be answered using principal components principal , principal axis factor.
If Rgraphviz is available, these graphs can be done in R. Graphical organizations of cluster and factor analysis output can be done using cluster. This is a question of reliability and general factor saturation. Additional reliability estimates may be found in the guttman function. This can also be examined by applying irt. Information functions for the items suggest where they are most effective.
So called Synthetic Aperture Personality Assessement SAPA techniques allow the formation of large correlation or covariance matrices even though no one person has taken all of the items. To analyze such data sets, it is easy to form item composites based upon the covariance matrix of the items, rather than original data set. The therapeutic design of environments for people with dementia: a review of the empirical research. Gerontologist 40, — Natural environments: healthy environments?
An exploratory analysis of the relationship between greenspace and health. A 35, — Degges-White, S. New York, NY: Springer.
Master of Science in Counseling Psychology | Avila University
Chalquist and L. Detweiler, M.
Does a wander garden influence inappropriate behaviors in dementia residents? Other Demen. Diette, G. Distraction therapy with nature sights and sounds reduces pain during flexible bronchoscopy: A complimentary approach to routine analgesia. Chest , — Dillon, K. Positive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. Psychiatry Med. Douglas, V. Stop, look and listen: the problem of sustained attention and impulse control in hyperactive and normal children. Dustin, D. The promise of river running as a therapeutic medium for veterans coping with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
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Urban Plann. Focht, B. Brief walks in outdoor and laboratory environments: effects on affective responses, enjoyment and intentions to walk for exercise. Exercise Sport 80, — Folkman, S. The case for positive emotions in the stress response. Anxiety Stress Coping 21, 3— Fredrickson, B. What good are positive emotions? The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires.
Fredrickson, L. A qualitative exploration of the wilderness experience as a source of spiritual inspiration. Fulton, J. Anxiety Disord. Gigliotti, C. Effects of horticulture therapy on engagement and affect. Aging 24, — Harvesting health: effects of three types of horticultural therapy activities for persons with dementia.
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Welfare 1, 19— Catherine freer wilderness therapy expeditions: an exploratory case study of adolescent wilderness therapy, family functioning, and the maintenance of change. Child Youth Care Forum 36, — Harte, J. Psychophysiology 32, 49— Hartig, T. Ward and P.
Travlou London: Taylor and Francis , — Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Restorative effects of natural environment experience. Natura and health. Public Health 35, — Hassija, C. Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A case for the utility of cognitive approaches in the treatment of PTSD.
Hattie, J. Adventure education and Outward Bound: out of class experiences that make a lasting difference. Hawkins, B. Nature-based recreational therapy for military service members: a strengths approach. Heyne, L. Theories that support strength-based practice in therapeutic recreation. Hill, N. Wilderness therapy as a treatment modality for at-risk youth: a primer for mental health counselors. Health Counsel.
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Kaplan, R. The Experience of Nature: a Psychological Perspective. Kaplan, S. The restorative benefits of nature: toward an integrative framework. Altman and J. Karsten, L. It used to be better? Kayne, S. Kayne London: Pharmaceutical Press. Kellert, S. National Study of Outdoor Wilderness Experience. Washington, DC: Island Press. Kennedy, B. Kerr, J. Psychological responses to exercising in laboratory and natural environments.
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Physical discomfort may be reduced in the presence of interior plants. HortTechnology 10, 53— Louv, R. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin press. Lovering, H. Luckner, J. Effects of participation in an outdoor adventure education course on the self-concept of hearing-impaired individuals. Deaf , 45— Altering locus of control of individuals with hearing impairments by outdoor-adventure courses. Macklin, M. Five-year follow-up study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
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Mehl, M. Eavesdropping on happiness: well-being is related to having less small talk and more substantive conversations. MIND Mindweek Report. Mowatt, R. Veteran stories, PTSD effects and therapeutic fly-fishing. Naess, A. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. Pojman Belmont, WA: Wadsworth , — The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement. A summary. Inquiry 16, 95— Neslen, A. The Guardian. Noddings, N.
Numeroff, R. Rockville, MD: Aspen. Obesity Update Olmsted, F. Ornish, D. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? Lancet , — Ottoson, J. The role of natural settings in crisis rehabilitation. How does the level of crisis influence the response to experiences of nature with regard to measures of rehabilitation? Park, S. Ornamental indoor plants in hospital rooms enhanced health outcomes of patients recovering from surgery. Therapeutic influences of plants in hospital rooms on surgical recovery.
HortTechnology 44, — Pain tolerance effects of ornamental plants in a simulated hospital room. Park, S-H. Mattson, R. Effects of flowering and foliage plants in hospital rooms on patients recovering from abdominal surgery. HortTechnology 18, — Peacock, J. Colchester, University of Essex. Plante, C. Does exercise environment enhance the psychological benefits of exercise for women? Stress Manage. Plante, T. Does virtual reality enhance the management of stress when paired with exercise? An exploratory study.
Psychological benefits of exercise paired with virtual reality: outdoor exercise energizes whereas indoor virtual exercise relaxes. Pretty, J. Green exercise in the UK countryside: effects on health and psychological well-being, and implications for policy and planning. The mental and physical health outcomes of green exercise.
Health Res. Prince, H. Outdoor play and learning in early childhood from different cultural perspectives. Outdoor Learn. Purdie, N. A review of the research on interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: what works best? Raanaas, R. Effects of an indoor foliage plant intervention on patient well-being during a residential rehabilitation program. HortScience 45, — Ramchand, R. Disparate prevalence estimates of PTSD among service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan: possible explanations. Trauma Stress 23, 59— Ratanapojnard, S.
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Smucker, W. Evaluation and treatment of ADHD. Physician 64, — Son, K. Effect of horticultural therapy on the changes of self-esteem and sociality of individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Spencer, C. Children and the city: a summary of recent environmental psychology research. Child Care Health Dev. Stein, M. Stern, P. The Annotated Walden: walden; or, Life in the Woods. Swimme, B. San Francisco, CA: Harper. Szofran, J. Horticultural therapy in a mental health day program. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Takano, T. Health 56, — Tanielian, T. Taylor, A. Children with attention deficits concentrate better after walk in the park.
Coping with ADD: the surprising connection to green play settings. Views of nature and self-discipline: evidence from inner city children. Growing up in the inner city: green spaces as places to grow. Taylor, S. Clinic Psychol.
Taylor, T. Teas, J. Walking outside improves mood for healthy postmenopausal women. Tennessen, C. Views to nature: effects on attention. Thomas, M. The potential unlimited programme: an outdoor experiential education and group work approach that facilitates adjustment to brain injury. Brain Injury 18, — Thompson, C. More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: evidence from salivary cortisol patterns. Tilt, J. Using objective and subjective measures of neighborhood greenness and accessible destinations for understanding walking trips and BMI in Seattle, Washington.
Totton, N. The effect of visual stimuli on pain threshold and tolerance. Tzoulas, K. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using green infrastructure: a literature review. Ulrich, R. Visual landscapes and psychological well-being. Natural versus urban scenes: some psychophysiological effects. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science , — Human responses to vegetation and landscapes. Cooper-Marcus and M. Dilani Stockholm: Svensk Byggtjanst , 49— Driver, P. Brown, and G. Effects of exposure to nature and abstract pictures on patients recovery from heart surgery.
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Going beyond: an adventure- and recreational-based group intervention promotes well-being and weight loss in schizophrenia. Psychiatry 51, — Walch, J. The effect of sunlight on postoperative analgesic medicine use: a prospective study of patients undergoing spinal surgery.
Wells, N. Nearby nature: a buffer of life stress among rural children. Whall, A. The effect of natural environments upon agitation and aggression in late stage dementia patients. Wichrowski, M. Effects of horticultural therapy on mood and heart rate in patients participating in an inpatient cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program.