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Kang H, and Gray S Country-specific risks and geographic disclosure aggregation: Voluntary disclosure behaviour by British multinationals The British Accounting Review , 51 3 , Management International Review , 59 2 , Wijayana S, and Gray S Capital market consequences of cultural influences on earnings: The case of cross-listed firms in the U. Management International Review , 55 6 , Australian Accounting Review , 23 3 , Gray S, Banerjee B, and Verma S Accounting change in India since independence: The influence of culture and the social environment with special reference to the regulation of cash flow statements Indian Accounting Review , 15 2 , Kang H, and Gray S Reporting intangible assets: Voluntary disclosure practices of top emerging market companies International Journal of Accounting , 46 4 , International Journal of Accounting , 46 4 , Verma S, and Gray S The creation of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India: The first steps in the development of indigenous accounting profession post-independence Accounting Historians Journal , 33 2 , Kim Y, and Gray S Strategic factors influencing international human resource management practices: an empirical study of Australian multinational corporations International Journal of Human Resource Management , 16 5 , Professor Sid Gray was quoted in an article in Sina China about his research into the barriers for Australian business to enter Asian markets.

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As of , Italy had the highest number of physicians per capita at an estimated per , people. In addition, there were approximately nurses, 59 dentists and pharmacists per , population. In the same year, Italy had public hospitals and private ones, for a total of approximately , beds. The infant mortality rate, As of , birth and death rates were estimated respectively at 8. The major causes of death were circulatory system diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, and accidents and violence.

There were an estimated 1, deaths from AIDS in Italy's housing and public building program was a major item in the general program of postwar reconstruction. From June to June , however, of the 6,, rooms destroyed or severely damaged, , were rebuilt and 4,, were repaired. Under a special housing program, originally instituted with funds from UNRRA and subsequently financed by employer and employee contributions, a total of 15 million rooms were constructed between and , alleviating the nation's immediate housing problems.

In , , new dwellings were completed. Education is free and compulsory for eight years for students age 6 through 15 , this includes five years of elementary school and three years of lower secondary school. Next, students may choose to attend a technical school, a vocational school, or one of several academic secondary schools, which offer a choice of specialized programs in classical, scientific, linguistic, and artistic studies. All secondary programs generally cover a five-year course of study. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about in There are 55 state universities and 23 other universities, colleges, and higher learning institutes, including the University of Bologna founded in the 11th century , the oldest in Italy, and the University of Rome, which is the country's largest.

The adult literacy rate for was estimated at about As of , public expenditure on education was estimated at 4. Italy, with its rich cultural heritage, is one of the world's great storehouses of books and art. Among its many of libraries, the most important are in the national library system, which contains two central libraries, in Florence 5. The existence of two national central libraries, while most nations have one, came about through the history of the country, as Rome was once part of the Papal States and Florence was the first capital of the unified Kingdom of Italy.

While both libraries are designated as copyright libraries, Florence now serves as the site designated for conservation and cataloging of Italian publications and the site in Rome catalogs foreign publications acquired by the state libraries. All of the national libraries are public. The Estense Library in Modena holds , volumes, including illuminated manuscripts from the 14th to 18th centuries. The university libraries in Bologna 1. The Medici -Laurentian and Marucelliana , libraries in Florence and the Ambrosiana Library in Milan are also important research centers.

Italy's public library system has about 84 branches and holds a total of 41 million volumes. Italy, a world center of culture, history and art, has more than 3, museums. Naples hosts the Museum of Ethnoprehistory of Castel Dell'ovo and museums of paleontology, mineralogy, anthropology, and astronomy. The National Museum of Science and technology in Milan has an extensive exhibit on Leonardo da Vinci , including models of some of the machines designed by the Renaissance man.

A Goethe museum, with manuscripts and illustrations describing Goethe's travels in Italy, opened in in Rome. Villa Torlonia, Mussolini's home, was renovated in and opened as a museum. Communication systems in Italy, including telephone, telex, and data services, are generally considered to be modern, well developed, and fully automated.

In , there were an estimated mainline telephones for every 1, people. The same year, there were approximately 1, mobile phones in use for every 1, people. Radiotelevisione Italiana RAI , a government corporation, broadcasts on three channels. In , there were an additional four national broadcast channels, three of which were operated by Mediaset, a company owned by Prime Minister Berlusconi.

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A media law initiated an intent to partially privatize RAI. In , there were an estimated radios for every 1, people. The number of television sets was unavailable in the same survey. Also in , there were There were 1, secure Internet servers in the country in As of , there were about 90 daily newspapers in the country, but not all of them had national circulation.

Panorama is the most popular news weekly with a circulation of , in The periodical press is becoming increasingly important. Famiglia Cristiana is a Catholic weekly periodical with a wide readership. Italy enjoys a free press, with vigorous expression of all shades of opinion. The majority of papers are published in northern and central Italy, and circulation is highest in these areas.

Rome and Milan are the most important publication centers. A considerable number of dailies are owned by the political parties, the Roman Catholic Church , and various economic groups. In general, the journalistic level of the Italian papers is high, and two dailies, Milan's Corriere della Sera and Turin's La Stampa , enjoy international respect. The law provides for freedom of speech and the press, and the government is said to respect these rights in practice.

Italian society abounds with organizations of every description. Many of these are associated with or controlled by political parties, which have their ideological counterparts in labor organizations, agricultural associations, cultural groups, sports clubs, and cooperatives. Among the most important organizations are the National Confederation of Smallholders and the General Confederation of Italian Industry, which strongly influences economic policy.

There are chambers of commerce in most major cities. There are labor and trade unions and professional associations representing a wide variety of occupations. A large number of professional organizations are dedicated to research and education in specialized fields of medicine or for particular diseases and conditions. Catholic Action and the Catholic Association of Italian Workers are the most prominent of the religious organizations. The international religious Order of St. Augustine and the Society of Jesus Jesuits are based in Rome.

A number of political and religious organizations sponsor youth chapters. Sports associations are plentiful and include such a variety of pastimes as tennis, badminton, tae kwon do, cricket, and football soccer. International organizations within the country include Amnesty International , Caritas, and the Red Cross. Among Italy's tourist attractions are the artistic and architectural treasures of Rome and Florence; the thousands of historic churches and galleries in smaller cities; the canals and palaces of Venice; the ruins of ancient Pompeii; the Shroud of Turin , reputed to be the burial cloth of Jesus; and the delicacies of northern Italian cooking, as well as the heartier fare of the south.

Tourists are also lured by Italy's many beaches and by excellent Alpine skiing. Italians enjoy a wide variety of sports, including football soccer , bowling, tennis, track and field, and swimming. Italy won the World Cup in soccer three times, in as host , , and Cortina d'Ampezzo, in the Dolomites, was the site of the Winter Olympics.

Rome hosted the Summer Olympics in Turin was the host the Winter Olympics. A valid passport is necessary to travel to Italy. For stays of up to 90 days a visa is not required. Within eight days all travelers must register with local police and obtain a visitor's permit. Proof of sufficient funds for the visit may also be required. Tourism, a major industry in Italy, brought in 39,, visitors in The Italian peninsula has been at the heart of Western cultural development at least since Roman times.

Also prominent in Latin literature were the orator-rhetorician Marcus Tullius Cicero — 43 bc ; the satirists Gaius Petronius Arbiter d. Gaius Julius Caesar ? The first of the Roman emperors was Octavian Gaius Octavianus, 63 bc — ad 14 , better known by the honorific Augustus. Moesia, ? No history of the Christian Church during the medieval period would be complete without mention of such men of Italian birth as St.

Benedict of Nursia ? Gregory the Great, ? Francis of Assisi ? Anselm ? Thomas Aquinas — No land has made a greater contribution to the visual arts. During the 16th century, the High Renaissance, Rome shared with Florence the leading position in the world of the arts.

Major masters included the architects Bramante Donato d'Agnolo, ? Giorgio Vasari — 74 was a painter, architect, art historian, and critic. Among the leading artists of the Baroque period were the sculptor and architect Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini — and the painters Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio ? Leading figures in modern painting were Umberto Boccioni — , Amedeo Modigliani — , Giorgio di Chirico b. Greece, — , and Giorgio Morandi — A noted contemporary architect was Pier Luigi Nervi — Music, an integral part of Italian life, owes many of its forms as well as its language to Italy.

The musical staff was either invented or established by Guido d'Arezzo ? A leading 14th-century composer was the blind Florentine organist Francesco Landini — Leading composers of the High Renaissance and early Baroque periods were Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina — 94 ; the madrigalists Luca Marenzio — 99 and Carlo Gesualdo , prince of Venosa ? Important figures of the later Baroque era were Arcangelo Corelli — , Antonio Vivaldi — , Alessandro Scarlatti — , and his son Domenico Scarlatti — Italian-born Luigi Cherubini — was the central figure of French music in the Napoleonic era, while Antonio Salieri — and Gasparo Spontini — played important roles in the musical life of Vienna and Berlin , respectively.

Composers of the 19th century who made their period the great age of Italian opera were Gioacchino Antonio Rossini — , Gaetano Donizetti — , Vincenzo Bellini — 35 , and, above all, Giuseppe Verdi — More recent operatic composers include Ruggiero Leoncavallo — , Giacomo Puccini — , and Pietro Mascagni — Ferruccio Busoni — , Ottorino Respighi — , Luigi Dallapiccola — 75 , Luigi Nono , and Luciano Berio — are major 20th-century composers.

Arturo Toscanini — is generally regarded as one of the greatest operatic and orchestral conductors of his time; two noted contemporary conductors are Claudio Abbado b. Bartolommeo Cristofori — invented the pianoforte. Italian literature and literary language began with Dante Alighieri — , author of The Divine Comedy , and subsequently included Petrarch Francesco Petrarca, — 74 , Giovanni Boccaccio — 75 , Lodovico Ariosto — , Pietro Aretino — , and Torquato Tasso — An outstanding writer of the Baroque period was Metastasio Pietro Trapassi, — , and Carlo Goldoni — 93 was the most prominent playwright of the 18th century.

The time of Italy's rebirth was heralded by the poets Vittorio Alfieri — , Ugo Foscolo — , and Giacomo Leopardi — Alessandro Manzoni — was the principal Italian novelist of the 19th century, and Francesco de Sanctis — 83 the greatest literary critic. In philosophy, exploration, and statesmanship, Italy has produced many world-renowned figures: the traveler Marco Polo ? Spain, ? Notable intellectual and political leaders of more recent times include the Nobel Peace Prize winner in , Ernesto Teodoro Moneta — ; the sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto — ; the political theorist Gaetano Mosca — ; the philosopher, critic, and historian Benedetto Croce — ; the educator Maria Montessori — ; Benito Mussolini — , the founder of Fascism and dictator of Italy from to ; Carlo Sforza — and Alcide De Gasperi — , famous latter-day statesmen; and the Communist leaders Antonio Gramsci — , Palmiro Togliatti — , and Enrico Berlinguer — Italian scientists and mathematicians of note include Leonardo Fibonacci ?

Andrews, Geoff. Not a Normal Country: Italy after Berlusconi. Ann Arbor , Mich. Baranski, Zygmunt G. West eds. New York : Cambridge University Press, Ben-Ghiat, Ruth. Fascist Modernities: Italy, — Berkeley: University of California Press, Duggan, Christopher. A Concise History of Italy. Findlen, Paula ed. Malden, Mass. Gardner, Richard N. Lanham, Md. Ginsborg, Paul. London: Penguin, New York: Oxford University Press, Moliterno, Gino ed. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture. New York: Routledge, Torriglia, Anna Maria.

Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, Fifteen into One? New York: Palgrave, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 19, Retrieved September 19, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed.

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Like the Roman god Janus, Italy wears two faces. One, soft with the patina of age, looks back on a glorious history — the awesome monuments of Imperial Rome, the ruins of Pompeii, the magnificence of canal-fretted Venice or colorful Florence, cradle of the Renaissance.

The other face, shiny new, reflects the modernity of a nation surging with superhighways, busy factories, and skyscrapers. Northern Italy, center of the nation's economic life, sprawls busily across the Po River plain. Industries sprout alongside time-worn medieval towns, and the alluvial soils make the area one of the richest agriculturally in southern Europe. Terraces on mountain slopes along the northern border grow grapes for wines and mulberry trees for leaves to feed silk-worms.

Central Italy is dominated by Apen-nine ridges. Once they helped bar unity; even now a village dialect may not be well understood only a few miles away. This is the nation's heartland; the region of Dante, Saint Francis , and Leonardo. Southern Italy, once poverty ridden and ravaged by malaria and erosion, rebounds under reclamation projects and expanding industry. Pacing its life is sunny Naples, the city of Vesuvius, of Capri , and Amalfi, of effervescent people who sing when they are happy, sad, or in love. Italy is one of the most attractive assignments in the Foreign Service.

The country boasts not only a rich cultural and historical tradition, but also enjoys a varied, pleasant climate. Italians are favorably disposed toward Americans, partly for historical reasons, but mainly because of their general appreciation of things American. Americans generally enjoy Italy, though some find it more difficult than they expect.

There is a chaotic element to life here that becomes immediately visible in street traffic, in bank lines, and in getting repairs done on an emergency basis. Urban air pollution has become a serious problem, particularly in Milan, Rome, and Naples. Italy, as other Western democracies, currently faces striking economic and political challenges. It must reduce the economic differences between the wealthy north and the poorer south and control organized crime.

In recent years, significant steps have been taken to deal with these problems, but they stubbornly persist. Approached with a spirit of adventure, humor, and patience, a tour in Italy is sure to be rewarding, both personally and professionally. Rome, one of the world's most famous cities, has been the capital of Italy since the nation's unification in Rome is located about halfway down the Italian Peninsula, 15 miles inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, astride the Tiber River.

Although the seven original hills of the city are small roughly feet above sea level , some of the hills on the west bank of the Tiber, such as Monte Mario elevation feet , are considerably higher. A city of about 2. It remains a city deeply imbued with a sense of history. Nevertheless, it is also a modern city with all the modern amenities, and difficulties. Rome is an international capital. A sizable foreign community is in Rome. Approximately 17, Americans permanently live in the consular district, which includes the regions of Lazio Latium , Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria.

A large variety of fresh produce is available locally. Prices and availability of particular items vary greatly with the season. Good beef can be hard to find, but veal is plentiful. Meats and poultry are much more expensive than in the U. Groceries are available in great variety, including typically American cereals, crackers, and cheeses.

Local bread keeps only a short time because it lacks preservatives. Men: American clothing is practical and satisfactory. Summer suits of synthetic materials can be worn here 6 months a year. Winter suits, a medium-weight overcoat, and a raincoat are also needed. Sports jackets are very useful. Tuxedos are worn for formal nights at the opera. Formal wear can be rented in Rome.

Good ready-made suits are available, as are excellent tailors and a good selection of materials. Although prices vary greatly, the best tailoring is cheaper and the best material more expensive than in the U. Custom-made shirts of cotton and silk, worn by well-dressed Italians, are expensive.

Underclothing, socks, and ready-made shirts are expensive. Fine silk ties and scarves, leather gloves, coats, and bags are a good buy. Although Americans generally prefer American styling for their shoes, Italian shoes are considered attractive and are available in a wide range of styles and sizes. Women: Wool or knit dresses and suits are popular and practical in Italy most of the year.

American cottons are ideal for the summer. Cocktail tail and short dinner dresses are worn frequently to the opera, concerts and parties. Sportswear of all kinds is useful. Dress shops are abundant in Italy, but the selection found in any one shop is limited. Clothing is in high fashion and made mostly of natural fibers all wool, cotton, or silk. Casual wash-and-wear summer fashions are hard to find i. Winter skirts and sweaters are abundant, of good quality, and are reasonably priced.

Remember that sizes and cuts are different and are not always to American taste. Good-quality undergarments are usually more expensive than similar items in the U. Some American brands are found locally. Italian women occasionally have clothes made. This is expensive, but it assures quality. Quality materials are expensive, and simple cotton dresses may often cost as much as silk dresses.

Silks and woolens, or blends, are beautiful and of good quality. Italian shoes are stylish and attractive, but sizes generally vary by length only and do not always fit American feet. A few stores carry American-last shoes. Good comfortable walking shoes are hard to find, but all-leather boots are abundant. Hats are seldom worn. Several hat shops in Italy sell ready made or made to order hats at prices comparable to those in the U. Ladies gloves and other leather goods are an Italian specialty and are generally cheaper than those in the U. Designer items from houses such as Gucci, Fendi and Valentino are expensive but cheaper than in the U.

Children: Beautiful handmade baby clothing and children's party dresses are abundant but expensive. Play clothes for children under 10 are available, but also expensive. Adequate laundry and dry cleaning services are available, although not as numerous as in the U. Dry cleaning is expensive. Rome has both laundromats and coin-operated dry cleaning machines; however, paid attendants operate the machines with varying reliability. Shoe repair prices are comparable to those in the U.

Excellent hairdressers and barbers are available, but they are expensive by American standards. Several have English-speaking hairstylists. One should inquire about expertise with different hair-styles and types. It is possible to have an American manicure and pedicure. Repairs to American radios, sound systems and electrical appliances are not always dependable because most local repairmen are not familiar with equipment made for the American market. It helps to have circuit diagrams or maintenance instructions for each item. Other repair services are generally good, but substantial effort may be required to locate the particular service needed.

Domestic help is expensive, particularly if you are seeking experienced personnel. Italian workers are rare and the majority does not speak English. There are many third-country nationals available. The mandatory requirement for locally hired non-EU household workers is that they possess a valid sojourn permit for work in Italy. Household worker employment is governed by specific Italian laws and by a National Contract for Household Workers, which is reviewed and renewed every four years. The cost of these benefits may equal the worker's basic salary. Workers' rights are based on Italian standards that are legally enforceable and failure to observe these basic standards can lead to unpleasant situations for the employer.

The following schools should be contacted as far in advance as possible for registration. Most schools provide student lunch facilities, athletic and recreational programs and bus service. The school year begins in September and ends in June. Good American, British, French and German schools are available.

Private schools, including English and French, enroll an increasing number of Italian students because of disciplinary and curriculum reform problems in Italian public schools. Nondenominational, coeducational day school offering instruction in the American educational system kindergarten through grade Instruction is by a multinational but predominantly American faculty. The school program is primarily designed to prepare students for American universities. Credits are transferable to U. The school has boarding facilities available for high school students at the Villa St.

Middle school students can board with local families. Preschool is available for 3-and 4-year-olds. An independent private day school is operated by the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary. It follows the same course system and offers the same credits as their school in Tarrytown, N. Y, which is guided by the N. Y State Board of Regents program. It also offers the International Baccalaureate program. The faculty is primarily non-clerical and international, drawing many teachers from Ireland and Great Britain. Instruction is offered in English to girls and boys from kindergarten through grade Early childhood classes are available for 3-and 4-year-olds.

Stephen's Schoo l, Via Aven-tina 3, Rome. Tel: 06 , Fax: 06 A private international high school accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, it offers a program in English designed to meet the entrance requirements of U. Faculty is primarily American. Boarding facilities are available for both boys and girls. The school does not provide bus service for day students. Faculty is British and the curriculum is the standard general college preparatory program designed to prepare students for British schools and universities.

For students in the International Baccalaureate program, it is adaptable for transfer to American schools and universities. This school was established in by a group of British-trained teachers and was formed as a cooperative. It is open to children of all nationalities from ages 3 to All lessons are in English, although an optional Italian program provides for those who wish to enter the Italian state system at a later date.

The curriculum emphasizes the basic skills, with each CORE teacher specializing in a subject that they teach throughout the school. Music, art, physical education and drama are part of their program. Providing an international education based on American and British approaches and techniques, the school's programs of study and activities foster the development of the whole child with opportunities for growth in all areas. Awareness and understanding of different cultures is encouraged, especially an appreciation of Italy, its language and its culture. Foreign language instruction is introduced at any early age.

Instruction is in English. AUR offers bachelor-degree programs in business administration, international relations, interdisciplinary studies, and Italian studies and an associate degree in liberal arts. It is the Rome study-abroad center for several American colleges and universities. John Cabot University offers bachelor degree programs in business administration, international affairs art history and English language literature.

Some associate degree programs are also available. All courses at John Cabot are transferable to Hiram College, which issues official transcripts for John Cabot students. The center offers an interdisciplinary program of graduate studies in international relations. Courses are given in international economics, European studies history, politics and culture , international law , U. Degrees earned at the Center are granted by the Johns Hopkins University. Degrees offered: diploma in international relations one year , M.

Tel: , Fax: The Graduate Center of St. John's University, located at the Oratorio San Pietro in Rome, offers programs of study in business administration, church administration, and international relations. The M. The church administration program began in ; the M. This is a program of St. John's University in New York. Almost any form of sports activity can be enjoyed in the vicinity of Rome, including golf, tennis, skiing, swimming, riding, boating, bicycling, hunting, and fishing. Spectator sports include soccer, boxing, horse racing , and auto and motorcycle racing.

Much of Rome's sports activity is organized around private clubs. Most memberships in private clubs are expensive and are not refundable. The Acqua Santa Golf Club , 5 miles from the city, has an hole course. The Olgiata Country Club, about 10 miles north of the city, has a hole golf course, swimming pool, tennis courts, riding horses, and a fine clubhouse. The membership fee is very high and you need a club member sponsor.

Several other tennis and swimming clubs are open to Americans. An incredible number and variety of places of historical and artistic interest are found in and around Rome. Commercial and cultural organizations arrange tours and visits daily. Epidemiological, behavioural, and clinical factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant gonorrhoea: a review. FRes published online Mar Prevalence, trend and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria: a systematic review.

J Infect Public Health published online Jun The Global Meningococcal Initiative meeting on prevention of meningococcal disease worldwide: epidemiology, surveillance, hypervirulent strains, antibiotic resistance and high-risk populations. Expert Rev Vaccines published online Dec Emerg Infect Dis published online Sep Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in a teaching hospital in Ghana. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Mar 9. Infection with high proportion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in conflict-related injuries is associated with poor outcomes and excess resource consumption: a cohort study of Syrian patients treated in Jordan.

Investigating the impact of poverty on colonization and infection with drug-resistant organisms in humans: a systematic review. Infect Dis Poverty published online Aug Clinical patterns, epidemiology and risk factors of community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers: a prospective hospital case-control study. Infection published online May Emerg Infect Dis Aug;24 8. Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bloodstream infections in critically ill children: outcome and risk factors in a tertiary teaching hospital in South America.

J Hosp Infect published online Oct Global forecast of antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in invasive isolates. Int J Infect Dis published online Feb 2. Poor clinical outcomes associated with community-onset urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol published online Oct Ang H, Sun X.


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Risk factors for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria infection in intensive care units: a meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Pract published online Mar Factors associated with community-onset multidrug-resistant organisms in inner Brazil. Pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility in Malaysia: a four year study on invasive paediatric isolates.

Int J Infect Dis published online Dec An inventory of supranational antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks involving low- and middle-income countries since J Antimicrob Chemother published online Mar 5. Harnessing alternative sources of antimicrobial resistance data to support surveillance in low-resource settings. J Antimicrob Chemother published online Dec Insight into Acinetobacter baumannii: pathogenesis, global resistance, mechanisms of resistance, treatment options, and alternative modalities. Infect Drug Resist published online Aug Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis.

Infect Drug Resist published online Oct The epidemiological impact and significance of carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections: a matched case—case-control analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol published online Aug Highly antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile isolates from Iranian patients. J Appl Microbiol published online Jun Technologies to address antimicrobial resistance.

PNAS published online Dec Epidemiology of bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae that are piperacillin-tazobactam-non-susceptible, but ceftriaxone-susceptible. Open Forum Infect Dis published online Nov Resistance decay in individuals after antibiotic exposure in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med published online Aug 7. Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in solid organ transplant candidates and recipients.

Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: challenges for treatment, prevention and infection control. Curr Open Crit Care Oct;24 5 First nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brazil, — J Antimicrob Chemother published online Apr 4. Drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization is associated with healthcare utilization and antimicrobial use among inpatients in Pune, India.

Prospective surveillance of healthcare-associated infections and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of pathogens in an Italian intensive care unit. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Apr 3. Comparison of governance approaches for the control of antimicrobial resistance: analysis of three European countries. Send more data: a systematic review of mathematical models of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Sep Factors that impact on the burden of Escherichia coli bacteraemia: multivariable regression analysis of data from west London.

J Hosp Infect published online Nov 4. Risk of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in patients with a documented penicillin allergy: population based matched cohort study. BMJ published online Jun Long-term impact of oral azithromycin taken by Gambian women during labour on prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of S.

Clin Infect Dis published online Mar Antibiotic resistance in Vietnam: moving towards a One Health surveillance system. Bowler PG. Antibiotic resistance and biofilm tolerance: a combined threat in the treatment of chronic infections. J Wound Care published online May 8. Results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program for detection of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. J Antimicrob Chemother published online Oct Clinical epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative sepsis among hospitalized patients: shifting burden of disease? A systematic review of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the etiological agent of typhoid.

Risk analysis of antimicrobial resistance in outpatient urinary tract infections of young healthy adults. Comparison of risk factors for, and prevalence of, antibiotic resistance in contaminating and pathogenic urinary Escherichia coli in children in primary care: prospective cohort study. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany: low levels of cephalosporin resistance, but high azithromycin resistance.

Trends in azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, the Netherlands, — Emerg Infect Dis published online Dec 4. Re-estimating annual deaths due to multidrug-resistant organism infections.

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Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol published online Nov Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of pneumococcal isolates of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in China. Infect Drug Resist Nov 26; Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from MSM. Int J Infect Dis published online Nov 6. Attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years caused by infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the EU and the European Economic Area in a population-level modelling analysis.

Lancet Infect Dis published online Nov 5. Antimicrobial resistance in leprosy: results of the first prospective open survey conducted by a WHO surveillance network for the period Clin Microbiol Infect published online Feb Catry B, Latour K, Bruyndonckx, et al. Characteristics of the antibiotic regimen that affect antimicrobial resistance in urinary pathogens. Identification of risk factors associated with carriage of resistant Escherichia coli in three culturally diverse ethnic groups in Tanzania: a biological and socioeconomic analysis.

Lancet Planet Health Nov;2 11 :e Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of neurosurgical patients at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Quantifying drivers of antibiotic resistance in humans: a systematic review.

Lancet Infect Dis published online Aug The impact of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa on clinical and economic outcomes in a Chinese tertiary care hospital: a propensity score—matched analysis. Am J Infect Control published online Dec Healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units in Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan: recent trends based on national surveillance reports. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Nov 7.

Increased day mortality associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children. Open Forum Infect Dis published online Sep Multiple introductions and subsequent transmission of multidrug-resistant Candida auris in the USA: a molecular epidemiological analysis. Lancet Infect Dis published online Oct 4. Prevalence of and factors associated with MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae in England and Wales between and analysis of annual cross-sectional surveillance surveys. Anthropological and socioeconomic factors contributing to global antimicrobial resistance: a univariate and multivariable analysis.

Lancet Planet Health published online Sep 1. Antibiotics associated with acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ICUs: a multicentre nested case—case—control study. Incidence and predictors of health care—associated infections among patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Am J Infect Control published online Sep Neonatal and paediatric bloodstream infections: pathogens, antimicrobial resistance patterns and prescribing practice at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. S Afr Med J Feb 1; 2 Intra-hospital differences in antibiotic use correlate with antimicrobial resistance rate in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: a retrospective observational study.

Understanding the evolution of antibiotic-nonsusceptible pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization following pneumococcal conjugate vaccines implementation in young children. Clin Infect Dis published online Oct Weather, climate control, and imipenem-resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: an ecological approach. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol published online Aug 2. Davoudi-Monfared E, Khalili H. The threat of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria in a Middle East region. Stably high azithromycin resistance and decreasing ceftriaxone susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 25 European countries, J Antimicrob Chemother published online Nov Treatment outcomes of colistin and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: an exploratory subgroup analysis of a randomized clinical trial.

Clin Infect Dis published online Nov Effect of the duration of antimicrobial exposure on the development of antimicrobial resistance AMR for macrolide antibiotics: protocol for a systematic review with a network meta-analysis. Syst Rev published online Dec Occurence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Togo, West Africa.

Int J Antimicrob Agents published online Nov Know your enemy: managing resistant gram-negative infections. Future Microbiol published online Oct Systematic review in South Africa reveals antibiotic resistance genes shared between clinical and environmental settings. Clin Infect Dis published online Nov 3. Community acquired pneumonia among adult patients at an Egyptian university hospital: bacterial etiology, susceptibility profile and evaluation of the response to initial empiric antibiotic therapy.

Infect Drug Resist Nov 2; Molecular epidemiology of Candida auris in Colombia reveals a highly-related, country-wide colonization with regional patterns in amphotericin B resistance. Clin Infect Dis published online May Travel to Asia is a strong predictor for carriage of cephalosporin resistant E. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Nov Cost-effectiveness of bedaquiline or delamanid plus background regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-income intermediate burden city of China. Int J Infect Dis published online Oct Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates resistant to last-line antibiotics in an Italian general hospital.

New Microbiol published online Sep Noninvasive screening identifies patients at risk for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Effect of varying federal definitions on prevalence and characteristics associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in veterans with spinal cord injury. Am J Infect Control published online Oct 6. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase mediated resistance in carriage and clinical gram-negative ESKAPE bacteria: a comparative study between a district and tertiary hospital in South Africa.

Antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, Cambodia, — Emerg Infect Dis published online Apr 3. Recommendations for the successful control of a large outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium VRE in a non-endemic hospital setting. J Hosp Infect published online Feb Hospital-onset MRSA bacteremia rates are significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors: a step toward risk adjustment. Colonization with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is associated with increased mortality following burn injury in sub-Saharan Africa.

World J Surg published online Apr The mortality burden of multidrug-resistant pathogens in India: a retrospective observational study. Clin Infect Dis published online Nov 8. Emergence of high drug resistant bacterial isolates from patients with health care associated infections at Jimma University medical center: a cross sectional study. Attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years caused by infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in Switzerland.

Lancet Infect Dis published online Nov Resistance pattern and maternal knowledge, attitude and practices of suspected diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among children under 5 years of age in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: cross sectional study. Bacterial aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility profile of post-operative sepsis among surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in rural eastern Uganda. Microbiol Res J Int ;24 2. GlobalSurg Collaborative.

Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective, international, multicentre cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis published online Feb Risk factors and prognosis of complicated urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitalized patients: a retrospective multicenter cohort study. Infect Drug Resist Dec 18; Predictive factors for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria among hospitalised patients with complicated urinary tract infections. Antibiotic exposure in the community and resistance patterns of Escherichia coli community-acquired bloodstream infection.

Isr Med Assoc J Jun;20 6 Duration of exposure to multiple antibiotics is associated with increased risk of VRE bacteraemia: a nested case-control study. J Antimicrob Chemother published online Mar Candida auris in South Africa, — Racial disparities in invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, Clin Infect Dis published online Apr 5. Antimicrob Agents Chemother published online Nov Antimicrobial resistance and respiratory infections. Chest published online Jun Integrating tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance control programmes.

Bull World Health Organ published online Feb 5. Measuring and mapping the global burden of antimicrobial resistance. BMC Med published online Jun 4. Establishment of a sentinel laboratory-based antimicrobial resistance surveillance network in Ethiopia. Health Security published online Nov Hitch G, Fleming N. Antibiotic resistance in travellers' diarrhoeal disease, an external perspective. A multi-center study on the risk factors of infection caused by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

Clinical features, identification, antimicrobial resistance patterns of Nocardia species in China: — Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis published online Dec Hughes G, Saunders J. Mycoplasma genitalium: the next sexually transmitted superbug? BMJ published online Oct Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Ethiopia: implementation experiences and lessons learned.

Afr J Lab Med ;7 2. J Antimicrob Chemother published online Aug Infected pancreatic necrosis due to multidrug-resistant organisms and persistent organ failure predict mortality in acute pancreatitis. Clin Transl Gastroenterol published online Oct 5. The magnitude of antibiotic resistance to Helicobacter pylori in Africa and identified mutations which confer resistance to antibiotics: systematic review and meta-analysis. The role of vaccines in fighting antimicrobial resistance AMR.

Hum Vaccin Immunother published online May The role of vaccines in preventing bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Nat Med published online Jan 9. Ertapenem non-susceptibility and independent predictors of the carbapenemase production among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends SMART. Difficult-to-treat resistance in gram-negative bacteremia at US hospitals: retrospective cohort analysis of prevalence, predictors, and outcome of resistance to all first-line agents.

Biocidal agents used for disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance in gram-negative species. Antibiotics Basel published online Dec Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter species: a seven-year experience from a tertiary care center in Lebanon. Antibiotic resistance in Palestine: an emerging part of a larger crisis.

Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Africa: successes, gaps and a roadmap for the future. Epidemiology of antibiotic resistance of blood culture in educational hospitals in Rasht, north of Iran. Effects of sexual network connectivity and antimicrobial drug use on antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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Emerg Infect Dis published online Jun 4. Increasing clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in pediatric Staphylococcus aureus infections. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vulvovaginal Candida species among women attending antenatal clinic in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. Infect Drug Resist published online Mar Current and future treatment options for community-associated MRSA infection. Expert Opin Pharmacother published online Feb Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of Klebsiella pneumoniae affecting 30 day mortality in patients with bloodstream infection.

J Antimicrob Chemother published online Oct 5. National costs associated with methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. Quantifying where human acquisition of antibiotic resistance occurs: a mathematical modelling study. BMC Medicine published online Aug Validation of the prediction rules identifying drug-resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. Burdens of invasive methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease, Minnesota, USA.

Emerg Infect Dis published online Nov Emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, south-central Ontario, Canada. Carbapenem non-susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in hospitals from to , data from the German Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance ARS. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Jun 5. Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in children with acute otitis media—high risk of persistent colonization after treatment.

High prevalence of MRSA and multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria in refugees admitted to the hospital—but no hint of transmission. PLoS One published online May Establishing nationally representative central line-associated bloodstream infection CLABSI surveillance data in paediatric patients in Greece. J Hosp Infect published online Jul Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae ESBL-PE among travellers to Africa: destination-specific data pooled from three European prospective studies.

Multi-centre point prevalence survey of hospital-acquired infections in Ghana. J Hosp Infect published online May 3. Infection with gram-negative bacteria among children in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Egypt. Am J Infect Control published online Feb 9. Epidemiology and risk factors for isolation of multi-drug-resistant organisms in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections. Surg Infect Larchmt published online Jan 3. Tuberculosis drug resistance in Canada: Can Commun Dis Rep ;44 11 Bringing home unwelcome souvenirs: travel and drug-resistant bacteria.

A multicenter, prospective, observational study to determine predictive factors for multidrug resistant pneumonia in critically ill adults: The DEFINE study. Pharmcother published online Aug Voriconazole resistance and mortality in invasive aspergillosis: a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: recent insights and challenges for patient management. Clin Microbiol Infect published online Dec Exploring the relationship between primary care antibiotic prescribing for urinary tract infections, Escherichia coli bacteraemia incidence and antibiotic resistance: an ecological study.

Int J Antimicrob Agents published online Aug Liu L, Ni Y. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of specific syndromes created with organ-specific weighted incidence antibiograms OSWIA in patients with intra-abdominal infections. Clinical characteristics of Candida tropicalis fungemia with reduced triazole susceptibilities in Taiwan: a multicenter study.

Int J Antimicrob Agents published online Oct A systematic review of the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the United States. Acinetobacter baumannii resistance trends in children in the United States, — Antibiotic resistance increases with local temperature. Nat Clim Chang published online May Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms in Canadian hospitals.

Comparison of point-prevalence survey results from , , and Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol published online Nov 5. Factors associated with bacteraemia due to multidrug-resistant organisms among bacteraemic patients with multidrug-resistant organism carriage: a case control study. Enterococcal bacteraemia: predictive and prognostic risk factors for ampicillin resistance. Epidemiol Infect published online Aug Echinocandin resistance among Candida isolates at an academic medical centre — analysis of trends and outcomes.

J Antimicrob Chemother published online Feb Threats to global antimicrobial resistance control: centrally approved and unapproved antibiotic formulations sold in India. Brit J Clin Pharm published online Feb 4. Meis JF, Chowdhary A. Candida auris: a global fungal public health threat. Combatting resistant enterococcal infections: a pharmacotherapy review.

Expert Opin Pharmacother published online Jun 7. Review and mapping of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Africa: using diverse data to inform surveillance gaps. Int J Antimicrob Agents published online Jun 1. The socioeconomic impact of multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections—a qualitative study. J Hosp Infect published online Aug What's new in the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections? Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis published online Aug Epidemiology of common resistant bacterial pathogens in the countries of the Arab League.

Lancet Infect Dis published online Oct 3. Antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio cholerae from sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium infections in Cuban patients: an underestimated health problem. Morehead MS, Scarbrough C. Emergence of global antibiotic resistance. Prim Care Sep;45 3 Antimicrob Agents Chemother published online Oct 1. Extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Proteeae association in a Romanian intensive care unit: risk factors for acquisition. Infect Drug Resist Nov 8; Alarming levels of antimicrobial resistance among sepsis patients admitted to ICU in a tertiary care hospital in India—a case control retrospective study.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Dec 7. Estimating the burden of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic literature review. Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis published online May Effectiveness and safety of polymyxin B for the treatment of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in Thailand.

Retrospective comparative analysis of risk factors and outcomes in patients with carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections: cefoperazone—sulbactam associated with resistance and tigecycline increased the mortality. Infect Drug Resist Oct 26; Antimicrobial resistance following mass azithromycin distribution for trachoma: a systematic review. High proportions of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. Empirical treatment of urinary tract infections: how rational are our guidelines?

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J Antimicrob Chemother published online Oct 8. Azithromycin susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and seasonal macrolide use. J Infect Dis published online Sep J Infect published online Feb 3. Ortwine J, Bhavan K. Morbidity, mortality, and management of methicillin-resistant S. Hosp Pract published online Feb 5. Resistance patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in urines are similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. J Hosp Infect published online Feb 9. Int J Antimicrob Agents published online Nov 3. Parikh F. Carbapenem-resistant hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae—emerging superbug.

J Assoc Physicians India Dec; The phylogeography and incidence of multi-drug resistant typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature Comm published online Nov Partridge SR, Tsafnat G. Epidemiology of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology and effects of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis worldwide. Gastroenterology published online Dec Pilmis B, Zahar JR. Ventilator-associated pneumonia related to ESBL-producing gram negative bacilli.

Ann Transl Med Nov;6 21 Staphylococcus aureus meningitis in adults: a comparative cohort study of infections caused by methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible strains. J Hosp Infect published online Nov Association between use of different antibiotics and trimethoprim resistance: going beyond the obvious crude association.

An update on antimicrobial resistance and the role of newer antimicrobial agents for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Indian J Med Microbiol ;36 3 Economic burden of nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Jan 5. Raeispour M, Ranjbar R. Antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and genotyping of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Oct 3. Risk factors for hospitalized patients with resistant or multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control published online Jul 4. Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from to in Switzerland. Antimicrobial susceptibility trends observed in urinary pathogens obtained from New York State. Regional spread of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae CRE through an ego network of healthcare facilities. Clin Infect Dis published online Feb 3. Outcomes of resistance-guided sequential treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infections: a prospective evaluation. Clin Infect Dis published online Jun 5.