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- Review: Pattern Formation in Morphogenesis. Problems and Mathematical Issues | EMS
- New theory deepens understanding of Turing patterns in biology
Soft Robot Underst Complex Syst Nat Comput Dvorak HF Tumors: wounds that do not heal. Similarities between tumor stroma generation and wound healing. N Engl J Med J R Soc Interface J Pediatr Surg Ingber DE, Levin M What lies at the interface of regenerative medicine and developmental biology?
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Development Ann Biomed Eng Nature Regen Med Biol Syst Levin M Reprogramming cells and tissue patterning via bioelectrical pathways: molecular mechanisms and biomedical opportunities. Levin M Endogenous bioelectrical networks store non-genetic patterning information during development and regeneration. J Physiol Li C Deer antler regeneration: A stem cell-based epimorphic process.
Phys Biol PLoS Comput Biol 8:e Transl Res Gerontology Meinhardt H Models of biological pattern formation: from elementary steps to the organization of embryonic axes. Curr Top Dev Biol Meinhardt H Beta-catenin and axis formation in planarians. Bioessays Morozova N, Shubin M The geometry of morphogenesis and the morphogenetic field concept.
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Springer Proc Math Mustard J, Levin M bioelectrical mechanisms for programming growth and form: taming physiological networks for soft body robotics. Ogawa K, Miyake Y Robust patterning of gene expression based on internal co-ordinate system of cells.
Bio Syst The idea of this workshop was precisely to create an environment in which biologists and mathematicians could communicate on this particular subject. These are not exactly the proceedings because the contributions were written as a result of the discussions and interactions during and after the workshop.
This subdivision may be a bit misleading because some of the originally biological papers do also include mathematics as the result of the interaction that took place after the lecture at the workshop. The mathematical reader should therefore not immediately feel the urge to jump to part II, because in many papers there is almost as much biology as there is mathematics, although in the biological papers, biology is obviously prevalent. Hence in part I, the main point of interest is the biological vocabulary and the names of the players stem cells, morphogens, regulatory RNA, In part II of course the emphasis is more on all kinds of possible models.
A model for oscillator synchronization in cell communication, a hybrid model for cell population, cell complexes and L-systems in multicellular structures, the role of stability and hysteresis mechanisms in pattern formation, dynamics of cancer growth, and population dynamics of cells. The models are only sketched at a superficial level, and one should not hope to find here an in-depth worked-out model for whatever process that is described.
Neither are these models well established and well understood, or completely explaining the experimental results. They still have an aura of speculation around them. Kondo and his team are studying bone growth in zebrafish.perunda.com/the-photo-book-of-iceland.php
Review: Pattern Formation in Morphogenesis. Problems and Mathematical Issues | EMS
A major step forward in understanding this process has been made by focusing on the stoepsel mutant stp , which affects normal vertebra formation. Indeed, the stp mutant has disturbed bone proportions, showing distinctly shorter vertebrae than wild-type, at later growth stages. Surprisingly, positional cloning revealed that stp encodes Connexin 43 Cx43 , thereby demonstrating that connexins are apparently major players during 2D and 3D patterning.
It is important to notify that Cx43 has two independent functions: a gap junction involved in initial bone formation and a hemichannel activity involved in later bone growth. Kondo has proposed a mechanism, whereby Cx43 hemichannels function in osteocytes as sensors of mechanical stress: a major factor in determining the 3D shape of a bone. In the stp mutant the hemichannel activity is abnormally enhanced - mimicking the effect of high mechanical stress - leading to increased osteoclast differentiation and enhanced rates of bone breakdown.
Fig 4. Pupa formation in the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica takes about 2 hours. Elongation of the horn however is completed within approximately 30 minutes. Shigeru Kondo. Science Fiction Science or Fiction?
New theory deepens understanding of Turing patterns in biology
Kondo, in which directions are your research projects developing? Our work on skin pattern formation is approaching its final stages: at present, we are in the process of identifying molecular factors that are instrumental in this process. Now, a natural and logical way to continue our research is to proceed from 2D to 3D patterning formation.