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Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. For a thousand years the classical Persian poetic tradition flourished, continuous and uninterrupted. It began in the great urban centers of Central Asia, Bukhara and Samarkand; and for centuries it dominated the high culture of Central Asia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Anatolia, and the whole of the northern part of the Indian subcontinent under the Mughal Empire.
It has been For a thousand years the classical Persian poetic tradition flourished, continuous and uninterrupted. It has been written in gold, poets have had their mouths stuffed with precious gems for an apt line of poetry, and the uncivilized have measured their progress into civilization by their ability to quote Persian poetry. A Millennium Of Classical Persian Poetry is designed to introduce students of Persian to the richness of the classical poetic legacy.
The Persian metrical system and poetic forms are explained, and selections are given from the works of all major poets, from Rudaki in the tenth century to Bahar in the twentieth, with annotations of difficult grammatical constructions and unfamiliar allusions. A full Persian-English vocabulary is included. Get A Copy.
Millennium of Classical Persian Poetry
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- A Millennium of Classical Persian Poetry by Wheeler M. Thackston
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For almost years Iranian languages were not used in writing.
The oldest preserved documents that use Middle Iranian languages date only from the 3rd century ce. The most widely used written language was Middle Persian, better known as Pahlavi, which remained in use with the Zoroastrians into Islamic times. After the coming of Islam , this text was translated from Pahlavi into Arabic prose. Both versions were later lost, but their contents survived in the works of historians writing in Arabic.
Lyrical poetry was still an oral tradition of minstrels, even at the royal court, and has left no traces. Texts written in other Middle Iranian languages, such as Sogdian and Khotanese Saka, had no more than a marginal influence on the literature of the Islamic period.
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The conquest was completed about The Caliphate that came to be established was an Islamic state ruled by Arabs, but very soon non-Arabs who had assimilated themselves to the new situation began to participate in the affairs of the Muslim community. Iranians contributed much to the development of the scholarly traditions of Islam. These sciences included, on the one hand, grammar and lexicography and, on the other, the theories of metrics, rhyme, and rhetorics.
They also included philological conventions for the collection, arrangement, and preservation of texts. Together these constituted a tradition of dealing with literary texts that became a model to all literatures that subsequently emerged in the Islamic world. Tools of this kind were important for the preservation of literature and its distribution to outlying parts of an extensive empire.
They also contributed to the standardization of form and style in poetry. From the centre of the empire it had spread to the provinces and had even marginalized other Iranian languages with a tradition of writing, such as Sogdian in Central Asia. Three centuries of Arabic hegemony had caused an influx of Arabic loanwords, which amounted to about half of the total word material of Persian.
estattement-id1.com/reo-drive-arizona-book-7.php The Persian alphabet was also borrowed from the Arabs with the addition of only a few signs for Persian sounds unknown to Arabic. All Arabic loanwords retained their original orthography whatever their pronunciation in Persian might be. The emergence of written Persian was facilitated by the political fragmentation of the Caliphate. In the 10th century they controlled most of eastern Iran and present-day Afghanistan.
Though they remained faithful to Islam, they did much to promote the literary use of Persian and the survival of Iranian traditions. At the same time, the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition.